100 Kubernetes Interview Questions That Will Land You Any Kubernetes Job

This blog post is a collection of Kubernetes interview questions that will help you get the job of your dream. Make sure you memorize a short answer and can provide a detailed explanation in your own words.

Our goal was to make this guide as technical and detailed as possible. We assume you already know what Kubernetes is, are familiar with general ideas of containerization, and understand the benefits of these technologies. Therefore, we omit generic questions and dive right into detailed, practical, and low-level questions, which are more likely to be asked during a Kubernetes interview.

You can use this as a roadmap for your interview preparation or as a last-minute knowledge check.

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Kubernetes Interview Questions – Part 1 – Kubernetes Architecture

kubernetes interview questions - kubernetes architecture

What is the latest version of Kubernetes that is generally available?

What is the Kubernetes control plane?

What is the Kubernetes data plane?

What are the main Kuberenets components?

For a complete and working Kubernetes cluster, you will need the following components:

  • API Server;
  • etcd;
  • kubelet;
  • kube-proxy;
  • Scheduler;
  • Controller Manager;
  • Cloud Controller Manager;
  • Container Runtime.

What is the API Server?

What is etcd?

What is kubelet?

What is kube-proxy?

What is scheduler?

What is Controller Manager?

What is Cloud Controller Manager?

What is Container Runtime?

Which Kubernetes components are considered Control Plane components?

Which Kubernetes components are considered Data Plane components?

Draw a diagram of Kubernetes components and interactions between them

Part 2 – Kubernetes API

Which Kubernetes component is responsible for providing access to Kubernetes API?

What are the main Kubernetes API objects?

What are the top-level properties of a Kubernetes API object?

What is the Kubernetes API verb?

What Kubernetes API verbs exist?

Kubernetes Interview Questions – Part 3 – RBAC and Security

kubernetes interview questions - kubernetes security

What does Kubernetes RBAC mean?

What RBAC components exist in Kubernetes?

What is AAA in Kubernetes?

Which kubectl command can determine if the current user can perform a given action without invoking the API action itself?

What is ServiceAccount?

What is SecurityContext?

What settings can you specify via SecurityContext?

Part 4 – Kubernetes Networking

kubernetes interview questions - kubernetes networking

What is Kubernetes Service?

What is Kubernetes Ingress?

What is an Ingress controller?

What popular Kubernetes Ingress controllers do you know?

What is CNI?

What CNI do you know?

What is NetworkPolicy?

What is the “pause” container and what’s its purpose?

What is a sidecar proxy?

What is a service mesh?

What popular service meshes do you know?

Kubernetes Interview Questions – Part 5 – Configuration, Deployment, and Resource Management

What are the main options for passing configuration information into a Kubernetes Pod?

How can a container inside a Kubernetes Pod find out in which namespace it is running without interacting with Kubernetes API?

What are the main ways of managing resources assigned to a container?

What happens if a container is trying to request more CPU or memory than is available on a cluster?

What happens if a container is trying to use more CPU than the limit assigned to it?

What happens if a container is trying to use more memory than the limit assigned to it?

What are the most popular solutions for managing Kubernetes manifests?

What is GitOps?

What are the most popular Kubernetes GitOps tools?

Part 6 – Scheduling

What does the term scheduling mean in Kubernetes?

What component is responsible for scheduling workloads on a Kubernetes cluster?

How can you instruct a Pod to run on a particular Node?

How to prevent a Pod from running on a particular Node?

How can you instruct two certain Pods to run on the same Node or, opposite, to never land on the same Node?

What types of affinity rules exist in Kubernetes?

Kubernetes Interview Questions – Part 7 – Storage

kubernetes interview questions - kubernetes storage

What storage options exist in Kubernetes?

The storage abstractions of Kubernetes are:

  • Volume
  • PersistentVolume
  • PersistentVolumeClaim
  • StorageClass

What is Kubernetes Volume?

What is Kubernetes PersistentVolume?

What is Kubernetes PersistentVolumeClaim?

What are the two ways for provisioning a Persistent Volume?

What is Kubernetes StorageClass?

What types of Persistent Volumes do you know?

Part 8 – Troubleshooting Kubernetes

kubernetes interview questions - kubernetes troubleshooting

How can you debug a Pod which is failing?

How to obtain logs from a Kubernetes Pod?

How to troubleshoot a Pod which hangs in a Pending state?

What does CrashLoopBackOff mean?

You have successfully created a Deployment. However, no Pods were created. What could be the issue?

What is debug container?

Kubernetes Interview Questions – Part 9 – Kubernetes Operators

What is Kubernetes Operator?

What are the main building blocks of an operator?

What is the Kubernetes Operator Framework?

Before We Finish

Memorizing questions without having a proper understanding isn’t usually effective. Make sure you can explain each and every concept mentioned in this article in your own words.

Also, you should never forget about practice. Focusing on learning theory and implementing it in a real environment will produce the best result.

If this list of Kubernetes interview questions helped you, please support our effort by sharing the article with your friends and colleagues. Our mission is to help as many people as possible to get a better life by landing high-paying jobs in Kubernetes, Cloud-Native, and DevOps.

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Shot-out to contributors and reviewers: Vladimir Mukhin, Ekaterina Krasnova, Geoffrey Israel Chinedu

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Originally published Sep 13, 2022 7:07:27 PM (updated September 20 2022 )

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